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Emanuel V. Towfigh


  • 个人简历

    Emanuel V. Towfigh,北京大学国际法学院长期访问杰出学者。他在德国 EBS 法学院担任公法、实证法研究和法律与经济学的主席,并且是 EBS 商学院的法律与经济学教授。Towfigh教授是纽约大学法学院的研究员和豪瑟研究学者(Hauser Research Scholar),以及弗吉尼亚大学法学院的客座教授。此外,他还在柏林洪堡大学、明斯特大学和哥廷根大学(德国)担任客座教授。


    His publications range from monographs (Diversity in the Legal Academy and in Legal Practice in Germany. An Essay; Monographic Commentary on Art. 21 Basic Law – Political Parties; The Paradox of the Parties. A contribution on the relationship between democracy and political parties) and textbooks (Economic Methods for Lawyers) to articles in renowned peer-reviewed journals such as the International Journal of Constitutional Law (I•CON, Oxford), German Law Journal (Cambridge), Judgement and Decision Making (JDM), Public Choice, Journal of Competition Law and Economics (JCLE) and International Review of Law and Economics (IRLE). Moreover, he has published in leading German law journals.

    His research on political parties was awarded the Young Researcher Award of the Muenster University Society, and he received the award for the best doctoral dissertation in the field of Law at the University of Muenster (Germany). He was a Fellow of the German Academic Scholarship Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes) and a Member of the Young Academy at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities and the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina whose Board he chaired in 2014/15.

    Emanuel V. Towfigh is Co-Editor in Chief of the German Law Journal (GLJ) and an editor of the monograph series Computational and Quantitative Methods in Law. He is also Co-Editor of two Blogs: Law’s|Empirics ( on empirical legal research and Zur Geschaeftsordnung (, a blog on the Law of Parliament.

  • 主授课程
    • Law and Economics
    • Legal Methodology
  • 研究成果


    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Michael Gruenberger, Anna Katharina Mangold, Nora Markard and Mehrdad Payandeh, Diversitaet in Rechtswissenschaft und Rechtspraxis. Ein Essay” [Diversity in the Legal Academy and in Legal Practice in Germany. An Essay], Baden-Baden 2021 (Nomos)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Jan Keesen and Jacob Ulrich, (Monographische) Kommentierung des Art. 21 GG [Monographic Commentary on Art. 21 Basic Law – Political Parties], in: Kahl/Waldhoff/Walter (Eds.), Bonner Kommentar zum Grundgesetz, Heidelberg 2020 (C.F. Mueller)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Das Parteien-Paradox. Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Verhaeltnisses von Demokratie und Parteien [The Paradox of the Parties. A contribution on the relationship between democracy and political parties], Habilitation thesis, Jus Publicum Series, vol. 244, Tuebingen 2015 (Mohr Siebeck)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Die rechtliche Verfassung von Religionsgemeinschaften: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel der Bahai [The Legal Constitution of Religious Communities. A Survey by the Example of the Bahais], Dissertation thesis, Jus Ecclesiasticum Series, vol. 80, Tuebingen 2006, second edition Tuebingen 2021 (Mohr Siebeck)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Niels Petersen, Markus Englerth, Sebastian J. Goerg, Stefan Magen, Alexander Morell and Klaus Ulrich Schmolke, Economic Methods for Lawyers, Cheltenham 2015 (Edgar Elgar International Academic Publisher)

    Journal Articles (Selection)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Andrew Hyde and Russell A. Miller, Making Open Access Viable Economically in: German Law Journal (GJL), vol. 21 (2020), issue 6, pp. 1129-1133
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Berenike Waubert de Puiseau and Andreas Gloeckner, Integrating Theories of Law Obedience: How utility-theoretic factors, legitimacy, and lack of self-control influence decisions to commit low-level crimes in: Judgement and Decision Making (JDM) [peer reviewed], vol. 14 (2019), issue 3, pp. 318-334
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Jacob Ulrich, Kommentierung der Artt. 4, 44 – 50, 96 DSGVO [Commentary on Artt. 4, 44-50, 96 of the German Data Protection Regulation] in: Sydow (ed.), Handkommentar Datenschutz-Grundverordnung, pp. 862-927 and pp. 1388-1392, Baden-Baden 2017 (Nomos)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Christian Traxler and Andreas Gloeckner, Geschlechts- und Herkunftseffekte bei der Benotung juristischer Staatspruefungen [The effects of gender an migration on state exam grades in law] in: Zeitschrift fuer Didaktik der Rechtswissenschaft (ZDRW) 2018, pp. 115-142
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Niels Petersen, Network Analysis and Legal Scholarship in: German Law Journal (GLJ) [peer-reviewed], vol. 18 (2017), issue 3, pp. 695-700
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Konstantin Chatziathanasiou, Oekonomische Aspekte der Durchsetzung des Verbraucherschutzrechts [The Law and Economics of Selected Instruments of Public Enforcement in Consumer Protection Law] in: Schulte-Noelke, Neue Wege zur Durchsetzung des Verbraucherrechts, Heidelberg 2017 (Springer), pp. 93-126
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, “Niemand kann zwei Herren dienen”: Ueberlegungen zu einer Kollisionsdogmatik fuer oeffentliche Unternehmen in privater Rechtsform [“No Man Can Serve Two Masters”: On Public Enterprises in Private Legal Form] in: Deutsches Verwaltungsblatt (DVBl) 2015, issue 16, pp. 1016-1023
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Alexander Morell and Andreas Gloeckner, Sticky Rebates. Target Rebates Induce Non-Rational Loyalty in Consumers in: Journal of Competition Law and Economics (JCLE) [peer-reviewed], vol. 11 (2015), issue 2, pp. 431-461
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Empirical Arguments in Public Law Doctrine. Should Empirical Legal Studies Make a ‘Doctrinal Turn’? in: International Journal of Constitutional law (ICON) [peer-reviewed], vol. 12(3) (2014), pp. 670-691
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Christoph Engel et al., First Impressions Are More Important Than Early Intervention. Qualifying broken windows theory in the lab in: International Review of Law and Economics (IRLE) [peer-reviewed], vol. 37(1) (2014), pp. 126-136
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Christian Traxler and Andreas Gloeckner, Zur Benotung in der Examensvorbereitung und im ersten Examen. Eine empirische Analyse [On Grading in the Preparation for the State Exam and in the State Exam. An Empirical Analysis] in: Zeitschrift fuer Didaktik der Rechtswissenschaft (ZDRW) 2014, issue 1, pp. 8-27
    • Emanuel Towfigh, Andreas Gloeckner and Rene Reid, Dangerous Games. The Psychological Case for Regulating Gambling in: Charleston Law Review (Charleston L. Rev.), vol. 8(1) (2013), pp. 147-189, (Working Paper Version: NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 12-24
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Andreas Gloeckner and Christian Traxler, Development of Legal Expertise in: Instructional Science (Instr. Sci.) [peer-reviewed], vol. 41(6) (2013), pp. 989-1007 (open access)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Andreas Gloeckner, Game Over. Empirical Support for Soccer Bets Regulation in: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law (PPL) [peer reviewed], vol. 17(3) (2011), pp. 475-505 (SSRN)
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Komplexitaet und Normenklarheit – oder: Gesetze sind fuer Juristen gemacht [Complexity and Normative Clarity – or: Statutes Are Made for Lawyers] in: Der Staat, vol. 48(1), April 2009, pp. 29-74
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Individualrechtsschutz vor Verwaltungsentscheidungen in der Volksrepublik China [Individual Rights Protection against Administrative Decisions in the People’s Republic of China] in: Jahrbuch fuer Ostrecht (JOR), vol. 45 (2004), issue 1, pp. 89-102
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Tobias Beuchert, Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit in der Volksrepublik China [Arbitration in the People’s Republic of China] in: Recht der Internationalen Wirtschaft (RIW) 2002, issue 12, pp. 902-908
    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Yang Yang, Grundlagen des chinesischen Kapitalgesellschaftsrechts [An Introduction to Chinese Corporate Law] (in: Shao/Drewes (eds.), Chinesisches Zivil- und Wirtschaftsrecht, Hamburg 2001 (Institut fuer Asienkunde), pp. 95-119

    Working Papers

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Der Umgang mit Empirie beim Nachweis von Diskriminierung [Empirical Approaches to Proving Discrimination] in: Mangold/Payandeh, Handbuch Antidiskriminierungsrecht, Mohr Siebeck (forthcoming fall 2021); Discussion Papers of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, 2021/2 (SSRN)
  • 教育背景
    • Habilitation (formal full professorship qualification), University of Muenster, Faculty of Law (venia legendi: Public Law and Legal Theory) (Germany)
    • Second State Exam in Law,Higher Regional Court Duesseldorf (Germany)
    • Doctor of Laws (J.S.D. equivalent), University of Muenster, Faculty of Law (Germany)
    • First State Exam in Law (J.D. equivalent), Higher Regional Court Hamm (Germany)
    • Studies of Law, Economics and Modern Chinese at the Universities of Muenster (Germany) and of Nanjing (P.R. China)