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Emanuel V. Towfigh

Distinguished Scholar in Residence

  • Emanuel V. Towfigh is a Distinguished Scholar in Residence at Peking University School of Transnational Law. He holds the Chair in Public Law, Empirical Legal Research and Law & Economics at EBS Law School in Wiesbaden (Germany) and is Professor for Law & Economics at EBS Business School. Moreover, he is a Research Affiliate of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods in Bonn (Germany), where he was a Senior Research Fellow before. Towfigh also was a Global Fellow and Hauser Research Scholar at New York University Law School (USA) and a Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Virginia Law School (USA). He furthermore held visiting professorships at Humboldt-University Berlin, University of Muenster and University of Goettingen (Germany). He is admitted to the Frankfurt bar (Germany).

    Emanuel V. Towfigh’s research focuses, in terms of substance, on the law of democracy and political parties, on the relationship of law and religion as well as on questions of digitalization. It also includes work on anti-discrimination law and diversity. Methodologically, next to doctrinal approaches, he employs empirical methods and (behavioral) law & economics arguments.

    His publications range from monographs (Diversity in the Legal Academy and in Legal Practice in Germany. An Essay; Monographic Commentary on Art. 21 Basic Law – Political Parties; The Paradox of the Parties. A contribution on the relationship between democracy and political parties) and textbooks (Economic Methods for Lawyers) to articles in renowned peer-reviewed journals such as the International Journal of Constitutional Law (I•CON, Oxford), German Law Journal (Cambridge), Judgement and Decision Making (JDM), Public Choice, Journal of Competition Law and Economics (JCLE) and International Review of Law and Economics (IRLE). Moreover, he has published in leading German law journals.

    His research on political parties was awarded the Young Researcher Award of the Muenster University Society, and he received the award for the best doctoral dissertation in the field of Law at the University of Muenster (Germany). He was a Fellow of the German Academic Scholarship Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes) and a Member of the Young Academy at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities and the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina whose Board he chaired in 2014/15.

    Emanuel V. Towfigh is Co-Editor in Chief of the German Law Journal (GLJ) and an editor of the monograph series Computational and Quantitative Methods in Law. He is also Co-Editor of two Blogs: Law’s|Empirics ( on empirical legal research and Zur Geschaeftsordnung (, a blog on the Law of Parliament.

    • Law and Economics

    • Legal Methodology 

  • Books

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Michael Gruenberger, Anna Katharina Mangold, Nora Markard and Mehrdad Payandeh,Diversitaet in Rechtswissenschaft und Rechtspraxis. Ein Essay” [Diversity in the Legal Academy and in Legal Practice in Germany. An Essay],Baden-Baden 2021 (Nomos)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Jan Keesen and Jacob Ulrich, (Monographische) Kommentierung des Art. 21 GG [Monographic Commentary on Art. 21 Basic Law – Political Parties],in: Kahl/Waldhoff/Walter (Eds.), Bonner Kommentar zum Grundgesetz, Heidelberg 2020 (C.F. Mueller)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh,Das Parteien-Paradox. Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Verhaeltnisses von Demokratie und Parteien [The Paradox of the Parties. A contribution on the relationship between democracy and political parties],Habilitation thesis, Jus Publicum Series, vol. 244, Tuebingen 2015 (Mohr Siebeck)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh,Die rechtliche Verfassung von Religionsgemeinschaften: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel der Bahai [The Legal Constitution of Religious Communities. A Survey by the Example of the Bahais],Dissertation thesis, Jus Ecclesiasticum Series, vol. 80, Tuebingen 2006, second edition Tuebingen 2021 (Mohr Siebeck)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Niels Petersen, Markus Englerth, Sebastian J. Goerg, Stefan Magen, Alexander Morell and Klaus Ulrich Schmolke,Economic Methods for Lawyers, Cheltenham 2015 (Edgar Elgar International Academic Publisher)

    Journal Articles (Selection)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Andrew Hyde and Russell A. Miller,Making Open Access Viable Economicallyin: German Law Journal (GJL), vol. 21 (2020), issue 6, pp. 1129-1133

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Berenike Waubert de Puiseau and Andreas Gloeckner,Integrating Theories of Law Obedience: How utility-theoretic factors, legitimacy, and lack of self-control influence decisions to commit low-level crimesin: Judgement and Decision Making (JDM) [peer reviewed], vol. 14 (2019), issue 3, pp. 318-334

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Jacob Ulrich,Kommentierung der Artt. 4, 44 – 50, 96 DSGVO [Commentary on Artt. 4, 44-50, 96 of the German Data Protection Regulation]in: Sydow (ed.), Handkommentar Datenschutz-Grundverordnung, pp. 862-927 and pp. 1388-1392, Baden-Baden 2017 (Nomos)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Christian Traxler and Andreas Gloeckner,Geschlechts- und Herkunftseffekte bei der Benotung juristischer Staatspruefungen [The effects of gender an migration on state exam grades in law]in: Zeitschrift fuer Didaktik der Rechtswissenschaft (ZDRW) 2018, pp. 115-142

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Niels Petersen,Network Analysis and Legal Scholarship in: German Law Journal (GLJ) [peer-reviewed], vol. 18 (2017), issue 3, pp. 695-700

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Konstantin Chatziathanasiou,Oekonomische Aspekte der Durchsetzung des Verbraucherschutzrechts [The Law and Economics of Selected Instruments of Public Enforcement in Consumer Protection Law]in: Schulte-Noelke, Neue Wege zur Durchsetzung des Verbraucherrechts, Heidelberg 2017 (Springer), pp. 93-126

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, “Niemand kann zwei Herren dienen”: Ueberlegungen zu einer Kollisionsdogmatik fuer oeffentliche Unternehmen in privater Rechtsform [“No Man Can Serve Two Masters”: On Public Enterprises in Private Legal Form]in: Deutsches Verwaltungsblatt (DVBl) 2015, issue 16, pp. 1016-1023

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Alexander Morell and Andreas Gloeckner,Sticky Rebates. Target Rebates Induce Non-Rational Loyalty in Consumersin: Journal of Competition Law and Economics (JCLE) [peer-reviewed], vol. 11 (2015), issue 2, pp. 431-461

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh,Empirical Arguments in Public Law Doctrine. Should Empirical Legal Studies Make a ‘Doctrinal Turn’?in: International Journal of Constitutional law (ICON) [peer-reviewed], vol. 12(3) (2014), pp. 670-691

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Christoph Engel et al.,First Impressions Are More Important Than Early Intervention. Qualifying broken windows theory in the labin: International Review of Law and Economics (IRLE) [peer-reviewed], vol. 37(1) (2014), pp. 126-136

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Christian Traxler and Andreas Gloeckner,Zur Benotung in der Examensvorbereitung und im ersten Examen. Eine empirische Analyse [On Grading in the Preparation for the State Exam and in the State Exam. An Empirical Analysis]in: Zeitschrift fuer Didaktik der Rechtswissenschaft (ZDRW) 2014, issue 1, pp. 8-27

    • Emanuel Towfigh, Andreas Gloeckner and Rene Reid,Dangerous Games. The Psychological Case for Regulating Gamblingin: Charleston Law Review (Charleston L. Rev.), vol. 8(1) (2013), pp. 147-189, (Working Paper Version: NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 12-24

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh, Andreas Gloeckner and Christian Traxler,Development of Legal Expertisein: Instructional Science (Instr. Sci.) [peer-reviewed], vol. 41(6) (2013), pp. 989-1007 (open access)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Andreas Gloeckner,Game Over. Empirical Support for Soccer Bets Regulationin: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law (PPL) [peer reviewed], vol. 17(3) (2011), pp. 475-505 (SSRN)

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh,Komplexitaet und Normenklarheit – oder: Gesetze sind fuer Juristen gemacht [Complexity and Normative Clarity – or: Statutes Are Made for Lawyers]in: Der Staat, vol. 48(1), April 2009, pp. 29-74

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh,Individualrechtsschutz vor Verwaltungsentscheidungen in der Volksrepublik China [Individual Rights Protection against Administrative Decisions in the People’s Republic of China]in: Jahrbuch fuer Ostrecht (JOR), vol. 45 (2004), issue 1, pp. 89-102

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Tobias Beuchert,Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit in der Volksrepublik China [Arbitration in the People’s Republic of China]in: Recht der Internationalen Wirtschaft (RIW) 2002, issue 12, pp. 902-908

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh and Yang Yang,Grundlagen des chinesischen Kapitalgesellschaftsrechts [An Introduction to Chinese Corporate Law](in: Shao/Drewes (eds.), Chinesisches Zivil- und Wirtschaftsrecht, Hamburg 2001 (Institut fuer Asienkunde), pp. 95-119

    Working Papers

    • Emanuel V. Towfigh,Der Umgang mit Empirie beim Nachweis von Diskriminierung [Empirical Approaches to Proving Discrimination]in: Mangold/Payandeh, Handbuch Antidiskriminierungsrecht, Mohr Siebeck (forthcoming fall 2021); Discussion Papers of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, 2021/2 (SSRN)

    • Habilitation (formal full professorship qualification), University of Muenster, Faculty of Law (venia legendi: Public Law and Legal Theory) (Germany)

    • Second State Exam in Law,Higher Regional Court Duesseldorf (Germany)

    • Doctor of Laws (J.S.D. equivalent), University of Muenster, Faculty of Law (Germany)

    • First State Exam in Law (J.D. equivalent), Higher Regional Court Hamm (Germany)

    • Studies of Law, Economics and Modern Chinese at the Universities of Muenster (Germany) and of Nanjing (P.R. China)

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